Clinical Presentation, Tumour Characteristics, Sociodemographic, And Lifestyle-Related Factors of Oral Cancer In Patients Visiting Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi Pakistan

Authors

  • Sahar Usman Department of Oral Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital/ Karachi Medical & Dental College Pakistan
  • Sufyan Ahmed Department of Oral Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital/ Karachi Medical & Dental College Pakistan
  • Sana iqbal Department of Oral Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital/ Karachi Medical & Dental College Pakistan
  • Mehwash Kashif Department of Oral Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital/ Karachi Medical & Dental College Pakistan
  • Bushra Saeed Department of Oral Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital/ Karachi Medical & Dental College Pakistan
  • Sehrish khan Department of Oral Surgery, Baqai Medical University Karachi Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51253/pafmj.v74i2.8172

Keywords:

Oral cancer, mouth, Smoking, Squamous cell carcinoma, Tobacco

Abstract

Objective: To determine the sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors of oral cancer, clinical presentation, and tumour characteristics among patients visiting Abbasi Shaheed Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and duration of study: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi Pakistan, from Oct 2020 to Nov 2021.

Methodology: One hundred and thirty-eight cases of diagnosed oral cancer were enrolled in the study and information wascollected regarding sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors. Clinical presentation at the time of oral cancer diagnosiswas also recorded.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.59+14.28 years. Out of 138 cases, most were males 108(78.3%), most belonging toa low socioeconomic status 122(88.4%). 78(56.5%) of patients had well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, followed bymoderately differentiated 59(42.8%), and only 1(0.7%) had poorly differentiated oral cancer. The study showed that oral cancer was highest among people from low socioeconomic status, with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type. Male gender, the use of chewable tobacco, and areca nuts were also reported as risk factors for oral cancer.
Conclusion: The study showed that oral cancer was highest among males and people belonging to low SES. Most of the cases had well-differentiated carcinoma and had a history of current and past use of tobacco, alcohol, and areca nut. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common oral cancer.We need mass campaigns to raise awareness ..

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Petersen PE. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach

of the World Health Organization. Oral Oncol 2009 ; 45(4-5):

-460.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.05.023

Conway DI, Purkayastha M, Chestnutt IG. The changing

epidemiology of oral cancer: definitions, trends, and risk

factors. Br Dent J 2018; 225(9): 867-873.

https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.922

Moore SR, Johnson NW, Pierce AM, Wilson DF. The

epidemiology of mouth cancer: a review of global incidence.

Oral Dis 2000; 6(2): 65-74.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.2000.tb00104.x

Ng JH, Iyer NG, Tan MH, Edgren G. Changing epidemiology

of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: A global study.

Head Neck 2017; 39(2): 297-304.

https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.24589

Ren ZH, Hu CY, He HR, Li YJ, Lyu J. Global and regional

burdens of oral cancer from 1990 to 2017: Results from the

global burden of disease study. Cancer Commun 2020; 40(2-3):

-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12009

Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Hussainy AS, Usman A, Faridi N, Malik

J, et al. Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Karachi--

identification of potential risk factors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev

; 4(2): 125-130.

Sohaib M. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Report

Nuclear Medicine & Oncology Division Pakistan Atomic

Energy Commission, Headquarter, Islamabad, Pakistan:

Atomic Energy Cancer Hospitals; 2019.

Babu KG. Oral cancers in India. Semin Oncol 2001; 28(2): 169-

https://doi.org/10.1016/s0093-7754(01)90088-0

Alqahtani WS, Almufareh NA, Al-Johani HA, Alotaibi RK,

Juliana CI, Aljarba NH, et al. Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers

and Possible Risk Factors Across Gulf Cooperation Council

Countries: A Systematic Review. World J Oncol 2020; 11(4):

-181. https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1283

Azhar N, Sohail M, Ahmad F, Fareeha S, Jamil S, Mughal N, et

al. Risk factors of Oral cancer- A hospital based case control

study. J Clin Exp Dent 2018; 10(4): e396-e401.

https://doi.org/10.4317%2Fjced.54618

Akhtar A, Hussain I, Talha M, Shakeel M, Faisal M, Ameen M,

et al. Prevalence and diagnostic of head and neck cancer in

Pakistan. Pak J Pharm Sci 2016; 29(5 Suppl): 1839-1846.

Badar F, Mahmood S. Hospital-based cancer profile at the

Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research

Centre, Lahore, pakistan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2015;

(4): 259-263.

Coelho KR. Challenges of the oral cancer burden in India. J

Cancer Epidemiol 2012; 2012: 701932.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/701932.

Amarasinghe A, Usgodaarachchi US, Johnson NW,

Warnakulasuriya S. High Prevalence of Lifestyle Factors

Attributable for Oral Cancer, and of Oral Potentially Malignant

Disorders in Rural Sri Lanka. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018;

(9): 2485-2492.

https://doi.org/10.22034/apjcp.2018.19.9.2485.

Al-Jamaei AAH, van Dijk BAC, Helder MN, Forouzanfar T,

Leemans CR, de Visscher J. A population-based study of the

epidemiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the

Netherlands 1989-2018, with emphasis on young adults. Int J

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2022; 51(1): 18-26.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2021.03.006

Bhurgri Y. Cancer of the oral cavity - trends in Karachi South

(1995-2002). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005; 6(1): 22-26.

Qureshi MA, Syed SA, Sharafat S. Lip and oral cavity cancers

(C00-C06) from a mega city of Pakistan: Ten-year data from the

Dow Cancer Registry. J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021; 16(4): 624-

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2021.02.001

Azimi S, Rafieian N, Manifar S, Ghorbani Z, Tennant M,

Kruger E. Socioeconomic determinants as risk factors for

squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a case-control

study in Iran. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018; 56(4): 304-309.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2018.02.014.

Auluck A, Hislop G, Bajdik C, Hay J, Bottorff JL, Zhang L, et al.

Gender- and ethnicity-specific survival trends of oral cavity

and oropharyngeal cancers in British Columbia. Cancer Causes

Control 2012; 23(12): 1899-909.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-012-0065-0

Khan Z, Suliankatchi RA, Heise TL, Dreger S. Naswar

(Smokeless Tobacco) Use and the Risk of Oral Cancer in

Pakistan: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis. Nicotine

Tob Res 2019; 21(1): 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntx281

Gupta B, Bray F, Kumar N, Johnson NW. Associations between

oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral

cancer: A case-control study from India. Cancer Epidemiol

; 51: 7-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2017.09.003

Mehrotra R, Pandya S, Chaudhary AK, Kumar M, Singh M.

Prevalence of oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions at a

tertiary level hospital in Allahabad, India. Asian Pac J Cancer

Prev 2008; 9(2): 263-265

Downloads

Published

29-04-2024

How to Cite

1.
Usman S, Ahmed S, iqbal S, Kashif M, Saeed B, khan S. Clinical Presentation, Tumour Characteristics, Sociodemographic, And Lifestyle-Related Factors of Oral Cancer In Patients Visiting Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi Pakistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 29 [cited 2024 May 24];74(2):405-9. Available from: https://pafmj.org/PAFMJ/article/view/8172

Issue

Section

Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)