Bridging Gaps in Teaching and Learning Biochemistry: A Qualitative Study


  • Syed Danish Haseen Ahmed Department of Biochemistry / Dow Medical College Karachi
  • Ambreen Usmani Department of Health Sciences / College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (CPSP), Bahria University of Medical & Dental College Karachi Pakistan



Biochemistry, Learning, Teaching, Medical education, Qualitative research, Biological sciences


Objective: To identify the sources of learning gaps in biochemistry teaching and learning and explore new teaching and learning strategies, considering the students' perceptions and felt needs.

Study Design: Exploratory qualitative study (Social-constructivist philosophical worldview).

Place and Duration of Study: Public Sector Medical College, Pakistan, from Jul 2020 to Jul 2021.

Methodology: Students from all five years of medical college were recruited voluntarily after their written consent. Ten focus group discussions were conducted, each consisting of approximately 8 to 12 participants. Each session was recorded and then later transcribed verbatim. Verbatim FGDs were reviewed, and codes were given as the concept became recognizable. A code structure was developed via an inductive approach, and then sub-themes and themes were generated.

Results: Ten major themes were generated from the FGDs. These themes were teaching, students’ motivation, clinical irrelevance, educational needs, transition difficulty, attitudes, student support, senior peers, curriculum coherence, and assessment. These themes were further elucidated to explain the causes of the learning gaps and provide suggestions.

Conclusion: This study concludes that teaching, students’ motivation, clinical irrelevance, educational needs, difficulty in transition, student attitude, student support, senior peers, curriculum coherence, and assessment are the potential sources of the learning gap to achieve intended learning outcomes of biochemistry for medical students.


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How to Cite

Ahmed SDH, Ambreen Usmani. Bridging Gaps in Teaching and Learning Biochemistry: A Qualitative Study. Pak Armed Forces Med J [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 29 [cited 2024 May 24];74(2):522-9. Available from:



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