Balance scorecard (BSC): Incorporating "Key performance indicators" (KPI) in the Evaluation of the Healthcare System


  • Sikandar Hayat Khan Department of Pathology, Combined Military Hospital Multan/National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) Pakistan
  • Nadeem Kureshi Department of Pathology, Pakistan Navy Ship, Johar Pakistan
  • Muhammad Sohail Aslam Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore
  • Sibtain Rafique Department of Pathology, Combined Military Hospital Multan/National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) Pakistan



Balance Scorecard (BSC), Strategic Management Initiatives (SMI), Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Healthcare, clinical leadership


Using the balanced scorecard approach, Strategic Management Initiative (SMI) driven Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) have
allowed measurable data regarding various clinical, medical, patient and logistic outputs for healthcare leadership to manage
an ongoing improvement system in real-time. We underwent a comprehensive search to have 168 articles with the keywords
"Balanced Scorecard in healthcare". We applied filters for the last ten years only. We shortlisted 14 studies. The study
highlighted various KPIs utilised in different healthcare settings, with most authors favouring BSC methodology as a
comprehensive strategy to deal with multi-dimensional hospital processes. The most utilised KPIs included service quality,
patient safety, increased healthcare literacy, empowering patients, developing the empathic attitude and social skills in
medical staff, professional human resource management and financial management and interests of stakeholders. In short, the BSC strategy is suggested for implementation to improve healthcare-related processes.


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How to Cite

Khan, S. H., Kureshi, N., Aslam, M. S., & Rafique, S. (2023). Balance scorecard (BSC): Incorporating "Key performance indicators" (KPI) in the Evaluation of the Healthcare System. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 73(6), 1862–1867.



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