Association of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) with Keratoconus in Patients Presenting to Ophthalmology Clinics of Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Pakistan


  • Maham Zehra Department of Ophthalmology, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Mohd Shakaib Anwar Department of Ophthalmology, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Erum Yousafzai Department of Ophthalmology, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Qura-Tul- Ain Department of Ophthalmology, Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology/National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS) Rawalpindi Pakistan
  • Waseem Akhter Department of Ophthalmology, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Afia Matloob Rana Department of Ophthalmology, HBS Medical and Dental College, Islamabad Pakistan



Keratoconus, Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis, diopters


Objective: To establish an association of vernal keratoconjunctivitis with keratoconus.

Study Design: cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Rawalpindi Pakistanv from Dec 2019 to Feb 2020.

Methodology: Patients with an age less than 16 years and a history of VKC were included. Ulcers or scars, systemic
connective tissues, and blue sclera were excluded. Follow-up after two weeks and later three months was conducted. Individuals with K readings of less than 45 diopters were considered normal.

Results: Among the 135 individuals enrolled in the study, more males 95(70%) than women 40(30%) were observed. The study also showed more individuals from age groups 1-10 years of age 107(79%). After three months, biomicroscopic findings and corneal topography (Oculus Pentacam HR) revealed that 20 individuals (14.8%) developed keratoconus (p˂0.001). The disease severity, periodicity, and eye rubbing lead to the development of keratoconus.

Conclusion: Pediatric keratoconus deteriorates faster than adults, and the management differs for various reasons, such as faster progression and advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. It burdens society as it influences children's quality of life and development. Hence, predisposing conditions such as Vernal keratoconjunctivitis need early diagnosis, recognition of progression, and appropriate intervention to prevent vision-threatening conditions such as keratoconus.


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How to Cite

Zehra M, Anwar MS, Yousafzai E, Ain Q-T-, Akhter W, Rana AM. Association of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) with Keratoconus in Patients Presenting to Ophthalmology Clinics of Rawal Institute of Health Sciences, Pakistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 29 [cited 2024 May 24];74(2):424-8. Available from:



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