Hospital Environment, Mental Health and Turnover Intention among Doctors of Lahore


  • Ambreen Anjum Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan
  • Muhammad Atif Government Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College Lahore Pakistan
  • Tahira Anwar Government Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College Lahore Pakistan



Hospital environment, Hospital, Mental health, Turnover intention


Objective: To assess the relationship between hospital environment, mental health and turnover intention among doctors.

Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Mayo Hospital Lahore and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore Pakistan, from Feb to July 2019.

Methodology: Using convenient sampling, a sample of 100 doctors (males=50 and females=50) was recruited. This study did not include participants with less than one year of work experience. The hospital environment was examined using the Organizational Environment Scale. The mental health of doctors was assessed using the Mental Wellbeing Scale, and their turnover was measured through the Turnover Intention Scale.

Results: Hospital environment and doctors’ mental health positively correlated (p<0.001). Doctors who perceived the hospital environment as good had good mental health and less intention to turnover their jobs (p<0.001). Furthermore, female doctors had poorer health and higher turnover intention than male doctors (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The hospital environment affects doctors’ mental health. A good hospital environment significantly positively predicted good mental health.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Anjum A, Muazzam A. Workplace bullying: prevalence and

risk groups in a Pakistani sample. J Public Admin Governance

; 3(2): 92-97.

Akif LA. Department of financial and administrative sciences.

Am J Soc Manag Sci 2016; 4(2): 54-62.

Geretto M, Ferrari M, De Angelis R, Crociata F, Sebastiani N,

Pulliero A, et al. Occupational Exposures and Environmental

Health Hazards of Military Personnel. Int J Environ Res Public

Health 2021; 18(10): 5395.

Thomas S, Jenkins R, Burch T, Calamos Nasir L, Fisher B,

Giotaki G, et al. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing

Mental Illness in General Practice. London J Prim Care

(Abingdon) 2016; 8(1): 3-9.

Robbins CJ, Bradley EH, Spicer M. Developing leadership in

healthcare administration: a competency assessment tool. J

Healthc Manag 2001; 46(3):188-202.

Nordin N, Abdwahaband R, Fadrick WY. Psychological wellbeing of young unwed pregnant women. Implications for

extension education and programs. J Behav Sci 2016; 68(5): 700-

Bothma CF, Roodt G. The validation of the turnover intention

scale. J Hum Resour Manag 2016; 11(1): 1-12.

Daly JL. Implications of organizational climate and ethical

leadership on re-engineering in municipal government. Public

Admin Quart 2017; 26(6): 198-117.

Smiley E. Epidemiology of mental health problems in adults

with learning disability: an update. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2005;

: 214–222.

Mobley WH. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between

job satisfaction and employee turnover. J Appl Psychol 1977;

(2): 237-240.

Field A, Discovering statistics for sample calculation. J Int Stud

; 2(6): 45-59.

Hasan NN, Petrides KV, Hull L, Hadi F. Trait emotional

intelligence profiles of professionals in Kuwait. Front Psychol

; 14: 1051558.

Dale MacLaine T, Lowe N, Dale J. The use of simulation in

medical student education on the topic of breaking bad news: A

systematic review. Patient Educ Couns 2021; 104(11): 2670-2681.

Lee M, Kim B. Effect of Employee Experience on Organizational

Commitment: Case of South Korea. Behav Sci 2023; 13(7): 521.

Okechukwu CA, Souza K, Davis KD, de Castro AB.

Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the

workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational

health disparities. Am J Ind Med 2014; 57(5): 573-586.

Hassanpour MK, Chong CW, Chong SC, Ibrahim Okour MK,

Behrang S, Tan XY. HR practices and turnover intention; the

mediating role of organizational commitment in Tehran: a

cross-sectional study. F1000Res 2021; 10: 1130.

Braithwaite J, Tran Y, Ellis LA, Westbrook J. Inside the black

box of comparative national healthcare performance in 35

OECD countries: Issues of culture, systems performance and

sustainability. PLoS One 2020; 15(9): e0239776.

Prabowo H, Rowa H, Rusfiana Y. Sustainable Community

Development as a Main Motive of Good Governance System

and Ethical Presentation in a Developing Nation. J Ethnic

Cultur Stud 2023; 10(1): 182–198.

Yildirim A, Yildirim D. Mobbing in the workplace by peers and

managers: mobbing experienced by nurses working in

healthcare facilities in Turkey and its effect on nurses. J Clin

Nurs 2007; 16(8): 1444-1453.


Razzaghian M, Ghani U. Effect of workplace bullying on

turnover intention of faculty members: a case of private sector

universities of Khyber Pakhtunkha. J Bus Econ Rev 2018; 6(1):





How to Cite

Anjum, A., Atif, M., & Tahira Anwar. (2024). Hospital Environment, Mental Health and Turnover Intention among Doctors of Lahore. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 74(1), 129–132.



Original Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)