The Impact of Hidden Curriculum in Clinical Learning Environment: Exploring Resident’s Perceptions


  • Aisha Akhtar Department of Dermatology, Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi Pakistan



Consultants/seniors, Formal curriculum, Hidden curriculum, Peers, Residents/Trainees, Medical Education


Objective: To explore and identify residents' perceptions regarding the hidden curriculum in dermatology practice and make it explicit.

Study Design: Phenomenology Qualitative study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology, Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan Aug to Oct 2021.

Methodology: Data was gathered from one focus group discussion and five face-to-face semi-structured interviews and analyzed by thematic analysis of the generated themes.

Results: Residents described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the department. Positive and negative role models were identified. Organized teaching and approachable seniors were appreciated, whereas favouritism and a lack of empathy were undervalued.

Conclusion: This study highlights the hidden curriculum in dermatology and attempts to recognize its important aspects. A continuous effort should be made to unravel it and align its positive aspects with the formal curriculum. This will lead to ethical and professional doctors and better health care.


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How to Cite

Akhtar A. The Impact of Hidden Curriculum in Clinical Learning Environment: Exploring Resident’s Perceptions. Pak Armed Forces Med J [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 29 [cited 2024 May 24];74(2):555-61. Available from:



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