Clinical, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Gender Disparity in Patients with Tuberculosis Infection in Pakistan
Keywords:Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smears, Female, Gender, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Tuberculosis
Objectives: To assess the clinical, environmental, and socio-demographic characteristics leading to gender disparity in tuberculosis in Pakistan.
Study Design: Prospective Comparative study.
Study Setting and Duration: The Indus Hospital, Karachi Pakistan, from Jul 2020 to Dec 2020.
Methodology: A sample of 200 patients with diagnosed tuberculosis (detected on an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear with radiographic abnormalities) irrespective of gender, sensitivity, or site of tuberculosis, were included in the study. Data of gender, personal history, substance abuse history, and dietary habits was documented.
Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly more common in female patients than in males (p<0.001). The mean age of male patients was 30.16 ± 9.47 years. Male patients were significantly older than their female counterparts (p=0.003). The diabetes mellitus in male patients was significantly higher than in female patients with TB (p=0.01). Similarly, substance abuse history was more frequently positive in male patients as compared to female patients, 28 (40.60%) vs 9 (6.70%); p-value <0.001. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of drug-resistance tuberculosis between the two genders. However, pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly more common in female patients than in males (p<0.001).
Conclusion: We reported some distinctive differences between male and female tuberculosis patients. Young females had more predilections toward tuberculosis as compared to men. Diabetes mellitus and substance abuse history were more common in male tuberculosis patients than in females.