THREAT OF COVID-19 AND PERCEIVED STRESS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF CHALLENGE, UNCONTROLLABILITY AND STRESSFULNESS
Threat of COVID-19 And Perceived Stress
Objective: To find out the mediating role of challenge, uncontrollability, and stressfulness in predicting perceived stress from threat during COVID-19 pandemic in the general public.
Study Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: Bahawalpur City, from Mar to May 2020.
Methodology: A total of 360 participants (men=154, women=206) were recruited from different cities of Punjab province. The stress appraisal measure, perceived stress scale, and coping scale were administered through Google forms using social media platforms. The participation in the online survey implied signing the written informed consent available in the survey.
Results: The primary and secondary appraisals of challenge (IE=0.84, SE=0.27, 95% LL=0.31, 95% UL=1.40), uncontrollability (IE=1.03, SE=0.36, 95% LL=0.34, 95% UL=1.76), and stressfulness (IE=-0.28, SE=0.12, 95% LL=-0.56, 95% UL=-0.08) fully mediated the relationship between threat of COVID-19 and perceived stress. Additionally, there was statistically significant positive relationship between threat of COVID-19 and use of coping strategies (r=0.14, p<0.01). The statistics of women regarding appraisals of threat, uncontrollability, stressfulness and perceived stress (2.94 ± 0.88); (2.49 ± 0.84); (2.87 ± 0.73); (19.92 ± 6.08), were found to be slightly higher on as compared to men (2.76 ± 0.82); (2.25 ± 0.81); (2.58 ± 0.76); (18.41 ± 5.37) respectively with p=0.01, Cohen’s d=0.21); p=0.001, Cohen’s d=0.29); p=0.001, Cohen’s d=0.38); (p=0.01, Cohen’s d=0.26).
Conclusion: The threat of COVID-19 significantly led to the experience of perceived stress through the mediating role of primary and secondary appraisals of challenge, uncontrollability, and stressfulness.