IMPACT OF MATERNAL ANEMIA ON PERINATAL OUTCOME
Objective: To evaluate the effect of maternal anemia on perinatal outcome.
Design: Cohort study
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Liaquat University Hospital Sindh Pakistan from March 2007 to December 2007.
Patients and Methods: A total number of 1012 women were delivered during the study period. All singleton pregnant women who attended the out patient department before 18 weeks of gestation were included while women with multiple pregnancies, past history of preterm delivery and medical illness except anemia were excluded from the study. Relative risk and a 95% confidence interval were calculated through. Demographic and socioeconomic features of both groups were compared by Chi-Squared test using SPSS 17. A p-value of or less than 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: A total of 818 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 407 in anemia group and 411 in non-anemic group. Hemoglobin range of anemic group was from 5 to 10 gram/dl. While in non anemic group hemoglobin ranges from 11 to 13gram/dl (mean11.87±0.54).
Risk of premature birth and low birth weight among anemic women was 3.92 & 2.2 times more than nonanemic women, which was statistically significant. Risk of IUGR was 2.2 times greater in anemia than non-anemic group. However this was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Our study shows that risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight were greater in anemic group than non anemic group, which was statistically significant. Preconceptional evaluation along with planned pregnancy is important in decreasing the frequency of maternal anemia and its effect on fetus and newborn.