Ethical Guidelines

Ethical guidelines for journal publication

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors must indicate that  the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. Experiments on animals, authors will be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed or not.

In case of a study involving a clinical trial, taking of an informed consent of the patients is mandatory.

Whenever editorial committee of PAFMJ feels necessary, the research paper will be referred to the ethical committee of Army Medical College, for its evaluation and approval.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Conflict of interest exists when the author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions (such relationship are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties). However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion. Increasingly, individual studies receive funding from commercial firms, private foundations, and government.  The conditions of this funding have the potential to bias and otherwise discredit the research.

When authors submit a manuscript, whether an article or a letter, they are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist.

It is the discretion of editorial committee of PAFMJ to resolve any conflict of interest between the author(s) and reviewers. Editors may choose not to consider an article for publication if they feel that the research is biased by the sponsors funding the research project.

Hazards and human or animal subjects

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

PLAGIARISM

Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and representing them as one’s own original work. Within the academia, a researcher is considered an academic fraud and the offenders are subjected to academic censure. Plagiarism can be unintentional or intentional reproducing academic material without appropriate citation. Similarly self-plagiarism is the re-use of significant, identical or near identical portions of one’s own work without citing the original work. This is also known as “Recycling fraud”. Worst form of plagiarism is to steal the whole article from some journal and publish it under one's own name in another journal. Lately the use of internet has made it easier to plagiarize, by copying the electronic tests and using them as the original work. All articles are checked for plagiarism and any article found to have a similarity index of more than 19% is not processed further.

It is the policy of editorial committee of PAFMJ to blacklist any author found to be guilty of plagiarism. The name of author(s) committing plagiarism will also be disseminated to editors of other medical journals, PM&DC and HEC.