DEREGULATION OF SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME
Serum Leptin Levels
Objective: To test whether leptin is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction.
Study Design: A case control study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Shifa International Hospital Islamabad for one year.
Patients and Methods: Serum leptin levels of 86 patients of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were compared with 86 age and sex matched controls. Leptin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.
Results: Our study indicated that patients of ACS have higher body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and blood sugar levels as compared to the controls (normal subjects free of any cardiac disease). Moreover serum leptin levels were also significantly higher in the patients of ACS (47.87 ± 6.16ng/ml) as compared to the control group (14.97 + 1.90ng/ml).
Smoking, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar and leptin levels were significant risk factors for ACS in univariate analysis. Whereas smoking, higher systolic blood pressure, blood sugar and leptin levels also remained significant risk factors for ACS in the multivariate model. Multivariate analysis indicated that increased leptin levels lead to 7.9 % increase in the odds ratio of ACS.
Conclusions; The current study has indicated that patients of ACS have significantly higher leptin levels as compared to controls, and this leads to 7 % increase in the odds ratio of ACS. This study showed that in addition to the traditional risk factors like diabetes mellitus, smoking and hypertension, increased leptin levels is also an important link in the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore development of therapeutic agents primarily directed against increased leptin levels could contribute in reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with CAD.