CLINICAL SPECTRUM AND RISK FACTORS OF STROKE - A STUDY OF 80 PATIENTS
Risk Factor of Stroke
Objective: To determine the clinical presentation and frequency of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, obesity, and other disorders which have a role in pathogenesis of stroke in patients belonging North Punjab.
Study Design: Descriptive Study
Place and duration of Study: Medicine Department of Combined Military Hospital Jhelum from September 2009 to September 2010.
Material and Methods: Patients with features of stroke confirmed by CT scan brain were enrolled. Brain imaging showing abnormality e.g. brain tumour, meningitis, multiple sclerosis and metabolic derangements that could explain focal neurologic deficit were the exclusion parameters. The clinical presentation and frequency of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, obesity, smoking, atrial fibrillation and past history of TIA /stroke among males and females were evaluated.
Results: A total of 80 consecutive patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study. There were 53 males and 27 female patients with male to female ratio of 1.9:1. The age of patients ranged from 50 to 80 years. (Mean-63.75 years). Out of 80 patients, 42 (52.5%) had ischemic stroke and 35 (43.75%) had haemorrhagic stroke, 3 (3.75%) patients had subarachnoid haemmorrhage Sixty (75%) patients presented with right hemiparesis/hemiplegia, 17(21.25%) patients with left hemiparesis/hemiplegia, 12 (15%) were unable to speak properly, 24 (30%) patients had headache, 17(21.25%) patients developed coma, 08 (10%) had fits and 13 (16.25%) patients had vomiting. Hypertension was found in 51 (63.75%) patients, smoking in 35%, diabetes mellitus in 33.75%, hyperlipidaemia in 31.25%, ischaemic artery disease in 15%, obesity in 23.75%, past history of TIA /stroke in 15% and atrial fibrillation in 6.25%.
Conclusion: Frequency of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, and smoking was high in stroke patients. These can be modified by proper health education. This can have a great impact on the morbidity and mortality of stroke.