• Tahir Ul Mulk Kahlon National Defence University Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Aneel Salman Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Nadia Asghar National Defence University Islamabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Hospitals, Public Health, Radiation, Radiology, Safety Standards


Objective: To study human protection practices in diagnostic radiography to identify shortcomings in procedures and recommend remedies. Study Design: Frequency distribution using cross sectional data. A mix methods empirical study Place and Duration of Study: Private and public hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad from March 2014 to July 2014. Material and Methods: Primary data was collected by observing the diagnostic procedures in Radiology departments of five selected hospital. The study compares the practices with International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection. Convenience sampling was drawn from estimated population size of 15000 cases of diagnostic Radiography during the study period of five months. From the population size, 375 X-Ray examinations were observed as sample size. In each hospital, about 75 observations were made and recorded. Descriptive statistics was applied using tabulation and graphs. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Cronbach’s alpha was used for validity. The margin of error was taken 5% with 95% confidence level. Results: Violation of safety standard of lead apron, attendants’ entry in radiation area, and absence of Gonad Shields was observed. Conclusion: There is a lack of awareness and knowledge both in radiographers and general public. The inefficiencies and low standards of protection are mainly due to slack implementation of public policy and inherent regulatory inadequacies.



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How to Cite
Kahlon, T., Salman, A., & Asghar, N. (2016). RADIATION EXPOSURE: A STUDY OF HOSPITAL PRACTICES. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 66(3), 439-43. Retrieved from https://pafmj.org/index.php/PAFMJ/article/view/1363
Field Medicine