Diphtheria is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae primarily affecting mucous membrane of upper airways. Global incidence of diphtheria has reduced due to worldwide immunization programs. Yet cases of diphtheria are reported across the world because of poor vaccine coverage, large population and low socio economic status. We report here a case of diphtheria in an 11-year-old girl who presented with fever, sore throat, difficulty in swallowing and hoarseness of voice for 3 days. Hematological analysis showed neutrophil leukocytosis with normal lymphocytes, CRP was raised, cardiac profile, renal function test, hepatic functions and chest x-ray were normal. Microscopy of throat swab revealed rods containing metachromatic granules on Albert stain. Intramuscular penicillin was started and diphtheria antioxin was administered. The child recovered uneventfully and was kept on follow up.
Keywords : Bull neck, Chinese letter appearance, Corynebacterium diphtheriae.