PAKISTAN ARMED FORCES
MEDICAL JOURNAL (Category Y)

A Journal of Army Medical & Dental Corps

Being published since 1956

ISSN (online) 2411-8842
ISSN (print) 0030-9648

VOL 68, No. 2, APRIL 2018

FREQUENCY OF UROLOGICAL CARCINOMAS PRESENTING AS GROSS HAEMATURIA IN PUNJAB PAKISTAN AND RECOMMENDATION FOR ITS EARLY DIAGNOSIS

Saif Ud Din Awan, Ahmad Nawaz Bhatti, Amer Fakhr*, Ayesha Noureen Awan**, Hina Fiyyaz**

Abstract

Objective: To determine the frequency of various causes of gross Haematuria presenting in our hospital and recommend a working protocol to young doctors.
Study Design: Prospective descriptive study.
Place and Duration of Study: Urology Department, District Headquarter and Teaching Hospital, Sargodha Medical College, from Mar 2012 to Mar 2014.
Material and Method: All fresh patients reporting to the hospital with complaints of ‘blood in urine’ were included in the study, while patients presenting with Microscopic haematuria were excluded. The patients, after being managed by the urology registrar, were given a questionnaire to fill, assisted by a resident, a reference number allotted for follow-up. A request for urine routine examination and urine microscopy/cytology was made to confirm haematuria and exclude malignant cells. Followed by ultrasound, X-Ray KUB, cystoscopy and
IVU/CTU scan, as required. The results obtained were recorded and analyzed.
Results: A total of 391 patients presented with complaints of ‘blood in urine’. Trauma: was the most frequent cause seen in 21.7% (n=85), followed by Urinary tract infections (21.0%, n=82), Urolithasis (20.2%, n=79) and  Urological tumors seen 19.4% (n=76) cases. About two thirds of the patients (56.6%, n=43) with urological tumors were not investigated, at primary health care level, to ascertain the cause and presented with advanced disease.
Conclusion: General practitioners should be encouraged to request ultrasound scan for patients presenting with gross haematuria, as urothelial tumours, if detected early, can be managed effectively with better long term outcome.

Keywords : Cystoscopy, Hematuria, Neoplasms, Pakistan, Urologic.



Creative Commons License
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.