Objective: To study the relation of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with diabetic retinopathy in patients enrolled from a tertiary care hospital.
Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM-1) at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi over a period of 6 months from Jan 2016 to Jun 2016.
Material and Methods: There were 90 patients of diabetic retinopathy enrolled from AFIO. Their ages were in range 40-70 years. Their levels of ESR, CRP and BMI were assessed. These were then compared with 90 normal healthy controls from general population. Independent student’s t-test was applied for scale variables and Chi square test was applied for nominal variables.
Results: Patients and controls were age and gender matched. Their mean ages were 60 ± 8.9 years in patients and 59 ± 13.02 years in controls. In 90 patients enrolled 51 (56.7%) were males and 39 (43.3) were females. And in 90 controls considered 49 (54.4%) were males and 41 (45.6%) were females. Both scale variables gave following results ESR= 27.9 ± 6.96 in patients and 16.02 ± 7.6 in controls with a p-value of <0.001 and BMI = 28.9 ± 2.94 in
patients and 26.02 ± 4.16 in controls with a p-value of <0.001. CRP being a nominal variable gave p-value <0.001. Diabetic retinopathy gave a significant positive association with all the three variables under study.
Conclusion: There is a direct relationship of ESR and CRP with retinopathy signifying that inflammatory processes may be one of the underlying biochemical mechanisms in development of retinopathy. Moreover a direct relationship also exists between BMI and retinopathy indicating the contribution of weight gain in development of retinopathy.
Keywords : Body mass index, C-reactive protein, Diabetic complications, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate.