Objective: To study and compare the histomorphological changes induced by second generation (2G), third
generation (3G) and fourth generation (4G) mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the organization of Purkinje cell layer of rat cerebellum.
Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Anatomy department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi; in collaboration with animal house, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from Nov 2014 to Nov 2015.
Material and Methods: Forty adult Sprague Dawley rats (20 male, 20 female), weighing 250-350grams,were taken and divided into 4 groups with 10 rats (5 male, 5 female) in each group. Group A served as control and was given normal diet and water ad libitum. Groups B, C and D were exposed to EMF from 2G, 3G and 4G mobile phones respectively, daily for 1 hour for 2 months. The animals were sacrificed on 60th day of the experiment, cerebellums were removed, fixed in 10% formalin, processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological study.
Results: It was observed on microscopic examination that EMF from 2G, 3G and 4G mobile phones effected the organization of Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum; being double cell layer in group B and multiple cell layers in groups C and D.
Conclusion: It was concluded from current results that radiations from 2G, 3G and 4G mobile phones have
deleterious effects on the organization of Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum with 3G and 4G causing more harm as compared to EMF from 2G mobile phones.
Keywords : Electromagnetic field (EMF), Fourth generation (4G) mobile phones, Purkinje cell layer, Rats, Second generation (2G), Third generation (3G) mobile phones.