PAKISTAN ARMED FORCES
MEDICAL JOURNAL (Category X)

A Journal of Army Medical & Dental Corps

Being published since 1956

ISSN (online) 2411-8842
ISSN (print) 0030-9648

VOL 67, No. 3, JUNE 2017

IMPACT OF VITAMIN D ON DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES

Nusrat Ali, Amena Rahim*, Sarah Ali*, Muhammad Hatif Iqbal**

Abstract

Objective: To compare the levels of vitamin D in children with early childhood caries and children with healthy sound dentition.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Islamic International Medical College from September 2015 to March 2016.
Material and Methods: Eighty children, between 2-8 years of age, were recruited after fulfilling a questionnaire from their parents or caregiver. The sample population was divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of children suffering from dental caries and was comprised of 60 patients. Group 2 consisted of children with sound healthy teeth and was comprised of 20 children. Questions assessing ch s socioeconomic background, dietary habits particularly frequency of sweet and milk intake, outdoor activity and dental hygiene related behavior were included. The diagnosis of childhood caries was based on oral health diagnostic criteria defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Overall total caries score (decayed missing filled teeth index) was obtained. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) was measured from serum samples of the children participating in this study using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Correlation analysis was done with Pearson correlation and t-test was applied.
Results: Results have established association of Vitamin D levels in children with early childhood caries. Pearson correlation and t-test have revealed that total decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) caries score was also associated with 25(OH) D concentrations less than 30ng/ml, decreased oral hygiene, lower monthly income, increased sugar consumption, decreased milk intake and decrease outdoor activities. This cross-sectional study showed that carries and lower serum vitamin D are closely related with each other.
Conclusion: Data from this cross-sectional study showed that dental caries and lower serum vitamin D were closely related. Improving children’s  vitamins D status may be an additional preventive consideration to lower the risk for caries.

Keywords : ECC, (Early childhood caries), vitamin D, 25OHD (25 Hydroxy vitamin D), dmft (decayed, missed, filled teeth).



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