Objective: To determine the frequency of hypoglycemia in small for gestational age neonates based on gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Dec 2011 to Jul 2012.
Material and Methods: We included 383 small for gestational age (SGA) neonates admitted in NICU. Blood glucose levels were checked in all neonates. Variables included in study were gestational age, gender, birth weight and mode of delivery.
Results: Out of 383 SGA neonates enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling, 191 (49.87%) were males and 192 (50.13%) were females. Out of these 203 (53%) were preterm, 165 (43.08%) were delivered at term and 15 (3.92%) were post-term SGA neonates with mean gestational age of 34 weeks 5 days. Out of the total 383 SGA neonates 208 (54.31%) developed hypoglycemia during stay in NICU and 175 (45.69%) remained euglycemic. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates were at highest risk to develop hypoglycemia (82.35%). It was seen that SGA neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery had highest risk of developing hypoglycemia i.e. 20 (76.92) out of 26 neonates. Out of 103 vaginal deliveries 41 (39.81%) had hypoglycemia and out of 254 Caesarean section 147 (57.87%) had hypoglycemia.
Conclusion: Low birth weight neonates delivered by instrumental vaginal delivery were found to be at a higher risk of developing hypoglycemia.
Keywords : Birth weight, Gender, Hypoglycemia, Mode of delivery, Newborn, Small for gestational age.