Objective: To study the morbidity and mortality of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis by comparing its results with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in chronic cholecystitis and simple cholelithiasis.
Study Design: Quasi-experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: Pakistan Naval Ship (PNS) Shifa Hospital Karachi and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Lahore Pakistan, from Nov 2009 to Jan 2013.
Material and Methods: Total 398 patients with symptomatic gall stone disease were included in the study after exclusion of patients with upper abdominal surgery, perforated gallbladder with abscess formation, cardiopulmonary disease, equipment failure and those with choledocholithiasis. Cholecystectomy was performed using a three port technique in most of the cases. On the basis of per-operative findings regarding degree of inflammation of gallbladder, all patients were divided into three groups irrespective of duration of symptoms i.e. acute cholecystitis group, chronic cholecystitis group and no inflammation group. The collected data included age, sex, diagnosis, history of previous surgery, co-morbidities, conversion to open surgery and its reasons, operative time, post-operative hospital stay and complications. Statistical comparison was performed using the chi square test. Statistical significance with value of p was less than 0.05 was considered significant.
Result: Out of 398 patients, 31.2% had acute cholecystitis, 10.1% had chronic cholecystitis and 58.8% had no inflammation of gall bladder. Complication rates and conversion rates were higher in chronic cholecystitis group as compared to acute cholecystitis group and no inflammation group. Similarly, mean hospital stay was also highest in chronic cholecystitis group.
Conclusion: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy was found safe in acute cholecystitis in expert hands and should be performed in all cases of acute cholecystitis rather than delayed interval cholecystectomy.
Keywords : Acute cholecystitis, Complications, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.