Objective: To study the clinical spectrum of seizures and efficacy of anticonvulsive treatment in children.
Study Design: A descriptive study.
Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from October 2011 to March 2012.
Material and Methods: One hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 12 years presenting with seizures at Military Hospital Rawalpindi were evaluated and consented to participate in the study. All children with a febrile seizures were evaluated. The seizures were classified according to international league against epilepsy guidelines. Antiepileptic treatment regimen was evaluated in terms of number of drugs, correct dosage and efficacy in control of seizures.
Results: It was observed that generalized seizures were (58%) followed by focal seizures (32%) in children. Valproic acid was prescribed in (51%) cases. Epilepsy was diagnosed in (56%) followed by cerebral palsy (20%), post meningoencephalitis sequalae (11%), intracranial hemorrhage (7%) and leukodystrophies (3%) as underlying cause of seizures. Statistically significant association was seen between age groups and diagnosis (p value=0.001); age groups and types of seizures (p value=0.046); correct dosage of antiepileptics and control of seizures (p value=0.007); compliance to treatment and control of seizures (p value=0.007).
Conclusion: Generalized seizures are the commonest form followed by focal seizures. Epilepsy was the common etiology of seizures in all age groups in children. Cerebral palsy was the second leading cause of seizures in children followed by post meningoencephalitis, stroke and leukodystrophies. Valproic acid was the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic. Normal delivery with delayed cry was the major risk factor for cerebral palsy. Prescription of appropriate antiepileptics according to diagnosis in optimum dosage and compliance to treatment affect control of seizures in children.
Keywords : Cerebral palsy, Epilepsy, Intracranial hemorrhage, Meningoencephalitis, Leukodystrophies, Seizures